Three main elements for promotion of HTT plasma technologies
Advantages of Plasma Technologies for waste treatment
- Production of clean alloyed slag which could be used as construction material
- Processing of organic waste allows production of combustible gases which can be used as a energy source or valuable chemical raw material
- Electric and thermal energy generation
- Production of value-added products
The process allows the reception of pure high-calorific synthesis gas (CO, H2, CH, etc.) at a temperature in the furnace to 1200°C . The same temperatures are capable of melting various non-flammable inorganic components. Properly picked up temperature of plasma reaction and structure plasma of forming gas allow to achieve the minimal content ballast products of oxidation (CO2, N, H2O etc.) and high calorific capacity of syngas. As a result, its energy could fully be used for electricity production.
Plasma Waste Treatment Process
Plasma pyrolysis is used to safely treat various types of waste in a furnace or in a reactor. The plasma pyrolysis process is the thermal degradation of organic substance in the absence of air (oxygen) by means of plasma energy. As a result of this process occur dissociation molecules of organic matter (waste) and the formation of syngas and inert inorganic residue (slag). The main element of plasma technology is a plasma arc torch. A plasma torch uses gas or steam and metal electrodes (copper, tungsten, hafnium, zirconium, etc.) to create plasma, which is an ionized gas. The temperature of the plasma torch can be in the range 4 000-20 000°F; at these temperatures molecular bonds break down through a process called molecular dissociation, to create basic elements of materials – atoms.
Air plasma torches not only effectively pyrolyze waste, but also vitrify its ash slag at a temperature of 1500-1800 Degrees of Celsius. High temperatures in the melting zone of furnace and reactor provide fusion of non-flammable inorganic components and their transformation to inert slag and alloy metals. The metals obtained through plasma pyrolysis can be used as commodity products in various applications.
Plasma processing of waste is an ecologically clean process. The lack of oxygen and high temperature in a reactor prevent the main elements of gas from forming toxic compounds, such as furans, dioxins, NOx, or sulfur dioxide. Extensive filtration removes inorganic residue (ash) and gaseous pollutants (NO, HCl, H2S, etc.) and allows the production of ecologically clean synthetic gas. The gaseous compounds do not contain any phenols or complex hydrocarbons. The circulating water in these filtering systems has removed the hazardous substances and must be cleaned.
Synthetic gas it is used basically for reception of electric energy. Gaseous pollutants are converted to valuable chemical products. Inert slag could be granulated and subsequently used in construction. Metal could be used for production of alloys, etc.
Systems Processing Flow
Plasma systems are safe for the work environment and for the atmosphere!
Quality and quantity of filters are the only two determinants of how clean the emissions are.
The amount of toxic components in the emissions is so low that it meets and exceeds international standards.
The discharging of pollutants into the air is also regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“USEPA”). The emissions of concern to the USEPA include sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCL), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NOx), particulates (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). HAPs include chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxins.).
HTT's plasma arc installations have advanced systems control and monitoring of emission with sensor at different stages of waste treatment and syngas cleaning process. We complete our monitoring system with gas analysis equipment which guarantee absence of harmful emissions in an atmosphere.
Plasma technology allows effectively automate processes of control, as easy to set up a system of feedback, when depending from flow parameters of wastes and syngas we can control plasma generators in real time to change the temperature of the plasma jet and its enthalpy and, if necessary, adjust the chemical composition of the plasma, and as a result adjust a composition of syngas and an emission into atmosphere.